Botanical NameFoeniculum vulgare Miller
DescriptionFennel Seeds Fennel belongs to the carrot family and is a flowering plant. It is said to be a perennial herb. Florence fennel plant is said to be smaller than the wild type. It is said to be indigenous to Mediterranean shores but is now familiar in many parts of the world.It is said to be highly flavorful and aromatic and has many culinary and medicinal uses. Fennel seeds are used in many culinary traditions around the world. The dried fennel seeds are said to be aromatic, anise-flavored spice which is of brown or green colored when fresh. Green seeds are optimal for cooking. Fennel is used in some natural toothpaste and also in soups. Fennel seeds are used as an important spice in Kashmiri and Gujarati cooking. It is used in Afghanistan, Middle-East and Iran. It is also used in sweet desserts. It is used as a meal digestive and breath freshener. Fennel seeds are rich in vitamins, calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese.It possesses a sweet taste. It is said to be the primary flavor component in Italian sausages. In India, it is eaten raw and also sometimes as a sweetener. Fennel seeds and oil are used to make medicine and it is also used as a flavoring agent. It is used as a spice for beverages and vegetable preparation and also as a digestive and refreshment. Fennel bulb is also eaten as a vegetable in some parts of the Mediterranean region. It is also said to be an antioxidant. It is a common practice in most Indian households to eat few fennel seeds after a meal. It is a biennial, aromatic, stout, glabrous, 1.5 to 1.8 mtr high. The ripe fruit (seed) is small, oblong, cylindrical, 6.8mm long, straight or slightly curved, greenish yellow, deeply furrowed, 5 ridged and having agreeable aroma.
Origin and DistributionIt is a native of Europe and Asia Minor. It is cultivated extensively in Northern India as a cold weather crop. It comes up well in fairly mild climate. The dry and cold weather favours high seed production. Prolonged cloudy weather at the time of flowering is conducive to diseases and pests.
UsesThe leaves of fennel is used for garnishing. Leaves and stalks are used in salads. It is an essential ingredient in Italian sausages, widely used to sprinkle on pizza. Dried fruits have fragrant odour and pleasant aromatic taste and therefore used as a masticatory. They are also used for flavouring soups, meat dishes, sauces, pastries, confectionaries and liquors. The fruits are aromatic, stimulant and carminative.
Indian Name of Spices
Foreign Name of Spices
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